Securing Docker containers - part II

Container runtimes like Docker and K8s are not entirely secure by default, so extra effort is required by devops engineers. This is the second in a series of blog posts with practical advise on how to reduce your container’s attack surface by revoking service root privileges.

Almighty containers

In the first post we saw there are fundamental differences between VMs and containers, and DevOps engineers should take active measures to improve container runtime security. And specifically how to mount a container image read-only at runtime to make it default immutable, and handling temporary and persistent volumes.

Another interesting default for containers is that Docker and K8s runs with root privileges. Not just inside the container, but also on the host.

Without containers, you would probably not be running your services as root. That is because you want to limit the blast radius from vulnerabilities in your service. For the exact same reason, containers should run as a user with the least privileges possible.

If an attacker manage to exploit a container escape volunerability to access the host, they would have complete control over the host to deploy persistent backdoors, clean up audit logs.

Rootless containers

Your Dockerfile can specify a low privilege user to be used to run the service. The following snippet from a Aspnet Core service create a new appuser that owns the app directory, where the service binaries are deployed. The last USER command drops root privileges by changing to appuser security context.

The image is Alpine-based.


RUN adduser -D appuser && chown -R appuser /app 

COPY --chown=appuser:appuser --from=publish /app/publish .

USER appuser

Developers tend to follow the path of least resistance, so default insecure behavior completely dominate public images on Docker Hub.

Rootless daemon

While the container process has now dropped the root privileges, the runtime daemon is still default executing as root. The container community is working on changing this behavior but at the time of writing it still “experimental”, i.e. has some road ahead to go before it can become default.

Rootless builds

The community is also working on splitting build tools from the Docker daemon. If you want to run rootless build pipeline have a look at Podman and Buildah. Note the latter use an alternative to Dockerfile-syntax to build OCI compliant container images.


This blog post displayed a big issue with container default privileges and how to fix it by dropping root to unprivileges user to reduce the blast radius of your container.