Security has always been the evil brother of ease of use.
I think one of the hardest parts of transitioning to browser-based applications for traditional .NET developers is the strict sandboxing called “Same-Origin policy” that browsers employ to prevent the loss of data confidentiality or integrity. It is certainly a topic that I am often asked about. This post covers the reason behind this security precaution, the sandbox limits, and finally how a web service can successfully support cross-site requests.
Too bad if you are building a web service that must be consumed by client side applications hosted on two different authorities or if you want your resource to be publically available to client side applications, right? Nope, there’s a W3C specification for that: Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) that supported by all modern browsers (and partially by IE9 as well).
Specifically the web page would issue a request like the following (simplified), expecting the server to respond with JSON serialized weather data in the response body.
However, the browser automatically first sends a pre-flight CORS request to the server like this:
OPTIONS / geo/N42.691966E27.7124523 HTTP/1.1
The web service must process the OPTIONS request and construct a response like the following:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 15 Sep 2014 01:15:39 GMT
Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET, OPTIONS
The browser automatically processes the response and checks if the authority of the page exists in the Access-Control-Allow-Origin response header, and if the method of the request to issue (GET) is in the Access-Control-Allow-Methods header. If one of those does not match, the browser simply cancels the GET request because the server-side did not specifically permit that request. But if all is good, the browser finally issues the GET request.
While the browser enforces CORS automatically, the server must specifically implement it. Default ASP.NET Web API rejects CORS requests altogether. However, it is supported in Web API 2.0 and there is a great NuGet package available that takes care of responding to OPTIONS requests.
Note that there are more Access-Control-Allow-… headers to take care of than in the naïve example above. Things like authentication, custom HTTP headers and caching tend to complicates things.
In a development environment you will find Eric Lawrence’s Fiddler to be helpful in monitoring the preflight requests. Another developer tip is to close all instances of Chrome and start it again with the command line parameter --disable-web-security it will then allow all CORS requests without issuing the preflight requests (careful!).
There is a good list of tips for secure CORS implementation at OWASP.
As I noted in the beginning, this Same-Origin policy is only enforced in the browser. So a common workaround is to proxy calls to different sites in a web service right next to the web page. Specifically SharePoint does not allow CORS requests, but Apps can leverage the web proxy approach to request external resources.
Thank you for reading this post. Please let me know if you found the article interesting, or if you have any questions regarding the topic by leaving a comment below.